105/270: #CharingCross – The Centrepoint

Nelson, aloft his column, stares down on Trafalgar Square and Whitehall with an all commanding stance. He’s definitely the feature piece of the grand plaza that plays host to a famous collection of monuments and icons. In infrastructure terms however Nelson is but a mere footnote compared to the equestrian statue of King Charles I, who sits isolated in the middle of a mini roundabout. It’s at this exact point in front of Charlie’s horse’s hooves that all distances to and from London are measured. Seen a sign 120 miles to London on the M1? 120 miles to this exact point.

This subway entrance next to it is about as close as a tube station gets to being in dead centre of London. So what about the Underground? Is there a centre point, a mile zero, for the whole network? Yes… but it’s not here

Image copyright A Carter – CallingAllStations.co.uk

Station Index

2015 ORR Station Data: Movers & Shakers

The Office of Rail & Road Station Usage Report has been released which of course makes me unreasonably excited. The report details the estimated* usage of every station on the UK rail network.

*Estimated because not all stations on the UK network are gated and therefore do not provide a 100% accurate reading of passenger usage. Usage is also estimated where stations are grouped together as a single destination (e.g Manchester All, Liverpool All, London Zone 2). For more information on this click here.

So let’s start by looking at the UK’s most and least used stations. For all the stats I’m using in this review I’m going to be focusing on Combined Entry & Exit data. ‘1 Passenger’ is defined as a journey starting or ending at any given station.

Most Used

Station Region Passengers
 1 (=0) London Waterloo London 99,201,604
 2 (=0) London Victoria London 85,337,996
 3 (=0) London Liverpool Street London 63,631,246
 4 (=0) London Bridge London 49,517,854
 5 (+1) London Charing Cross London 42,978,890
 6 (-1) London Euston London 42,952,298
 7 (=0) London Paddington London 35,724,648
 8 (=0) Birmingham New Street West Midlands 35,312,788
 9 (=0) London King’s Cross London 31,346,862
 10 (+2) Stratford London 30,974,204

No surprises really that 9 out of the 10 busiest stations in the UK are in London.

Image By Diliff

London Waterloo – Photo by Diliff; CC-BY-SA-3.0

No significant changes in the ranking with Charing Cross and Euston separated by the odd 10,000 people here and there. As the local area undergoes further re-development, Stratford knocks Leeds out of the top 10 by jumping up 2 places. (We’ll talk a bit more about that later).

Least Used

Station Region Passengers
1 (+1) Shippea Hill East 22
2 (+3) Coombe South West 26
3 (-3) Tees-Side Airport North East 32
4 (-1) Reddish South North West 54
5 (-1) Barry Links Scotland 60
6 (+2) Pilning South West 68
7  (+2) Golf Street Scotland 86
8 (+7) Elton & Orston East Midlands 88
8 (-1) Buckenham East 88
10 (-4) Breich Scotland 92

If 9/10 of the busiest stations in the UK are in London it seems logical that 10 of the least used stations aren’t**. Spread out across the country (although interestingly none in Wales) the top 10 quietest stations range from Coombe in rural Cornwall to Breich in Scotland. There’s a bit more movement in the Least Used top 10 as the margins that separate total passenger numbers are obviously much smaller. Nonetheless the stations in this list tend to interchange ranks with each other every year. The only station that didn’t appear last year is Elton & Orston, which rose 7 places in the rankings. The Nottinghamshire entry, which replaces Denton – Manchester, has seen steady decline in usage over the last 10 years. In 2014 there was a peak in usage which saw the station drop out of the top 10. The explanation for this is unclear.

**London doesn’t make the list until Rank No. 333 where the capital’s least used station, Sudbury & Harrow Road, has a comparatively massive 19,124 yearly journeys.

Image By Mark Hurn

Shippea Hill – Photo by Mark Hurn; CC-BY-SA-2.0

The reasons for such poor passenger footfall vary. The remote locations of some of the Scottish entries naturally produce a low yield in usage despite some of these stations having a reasonable level of service. Others in more densely populated areas such as Reddish South deliberately have such poor levels of service that passengers are actively discouraged to use them. Infrequent and inconvenient services are ran – often only once a week, in one direction and very early in the morning. These bare minimum ‘Parliamentary Services’ allow Train Operating Companies to wilfully neglect stations on non-main line routes without legally having to close the station – an expensive and lengthy procedure.

This creates a rather sadly self fulfilling prophecy. Poor passenger numbers don’t attract investment and services. Poor services don’t attract passengers… and so on… In the instance of Reddish South the figures of usage are somewhat false as these erratic services attract rail enthusiasts that wouldn’t otherwise frequent the station in normal circumstances. It’s quite possible that without this unusual form of tourism most of the stations on the above list would have no yearly passengers at all.

Biggest Increase (Raw)

Image By Ewan Munro

Stratford – Photo by Ewan Munro; CC-BY-SA-2.0

There are two methods of viewing changing passenger levels: Actual raw number of extra/fewer passengers, or, a percentage change with reference to the previous yaer. Both have merits and pitfuls in terms of data return. Let’s first look at the raw figures.

Station Region Passenger
1 Stratford London 4,596,698
2 Highbury & Islington London 4,135,504
3 Canada Water London 4,116,752
4 London Victoria London 3,981,666
5 London Charing Cross London 2,808,816
6 Whitechapel London 2,764,794
7 London St. Pancras London 2,195,848
8 Glasgow Central Scotland 1,812,066
9 Vauxhall London 1,709,700
10 West Ham London 1,618,730

It’s no surprise that we return to London for large increases in passenger numbers. Some of the above list correspond with the evolution of popular London Overground services in the capital. Whilst Stratford’s astronomic increase in usership does correspond to the re-generation in the area, the original report does come with a caveat that Pay As You Go Oyster figures may have been underestimated in the previous year. This also applies to Highbury, Canada Water, Whitechapel and West Ham.

Leeds, Edinburgh and Glasgow Queen Street also feature in the top 20 with increases of over 1 million passengers each. It’s hardly shocking that in our ever congested cities rail based commuting is on the rise. The unaffordability of Central London is no doubt a contributing factor to the extra millions of people using suburban routes.

Biggest Decrease (Raw)

Station Region Passenger
1 London Bridge London -6,924,190
2 Southend Victoria East -2,368,108
3 London Fenchurch Street London -646,284
4 Birkenhead Hamilton Square North West -514,726
5 Worcester Shrub Hill West Midlands -373,432
6 Sunderland North East -327,634
7 Southend East East -239,846
8 Reading West South East -225,482
9 Newark North Gate East Midlands -207,795
10 Digby & Sowton South West -201,368

It is perhaps odd that a number of termini, especially ones in London, appear in the top 10 list of decreasing passenger numbers. Often internal factors are responsible for these figures. London Bridge for example is experiencing extensive redevelopment with many services diverted to other London termini (Incidentally this may explain increase statistics for both Charing Cross and Cannon Street). Equally Birkenhead HS was closed for the majority of the year for engineering work.

Image By Sunil060902

London Bridge – Photo by Sunil060902; CC-BY-SA-3.0

Reading West is likely to have seen a reversal in increasing passenger numbers due to the completion of the upgrade scheme at nearby Reading (General).

A number of stations on this list have seen changes in the way passenger figures are calculated and distributed. Southend for example would have once been grouped together under ‘Southend All’ with an estimated percentage distributed amongst Southend Victoria, Central and East. The method of data collection has now been altered to more accurately reflect true footfall from each station. Whilst Southend Victoria shows a loss of over 2 million journeys, Southend Central shows an increase of nearly 1 million. Other nearby commuter stations such as Prittlewell and Westcliffe have also seen strong increases which likely balances out the Southend area discrepancies.

Similarly Newark, Sunderland and Worcester have all seen data distribution alterations that may hamper this year’s statistics compared to last.

Fenchurch Street is a curious addition to this list, considering it is bucking the substantial rise in London termini journey figures. We can possibly attribute this to a number of days of engineering work although not on the same scale as the upgrades at London Bridge.

Overall Changes

It’s important to note that of the 2539 stations only 154 saw a drop in passenger numbers of over 10,000, most of which caused by temporary closures or engineering works.

Percentage Increase

Whilst Raw increases show important information about demand the data returned can sometimes be misleading. The increase of 4 million people at London Victoria could be considered small fry when the station was already servicing 81 million journeys. This only represents an increase of 4.9% on the year before. Under this method a small station which say doubles it’s usage would go unnoticed. It’s therefore prudent to also examine percentage increases by dividing the change in passenger numbers by last years totals.

***This list excludes Pye Corner and James Cook University Hospital as they are brand new stations for 2015 and would have returned an infinite result.

Station Region Percentage
1*** Energlyn & Churchill Park Wales 335.47% 53,452
2 Tees-Side Airport North East 300% 24
3 Pevensey Bay South East 272.39% 18,626
4 Manea East 192.20% 7,100
5 Prittlewell East 159.34% 261,002
6 Blaydon North East 136.94% 6,866
7 Newark Castle East Midlands 123.59% 298,049
8 New Lane North West 119.80% 3,630
9 Melksham South West 116.71% 27,928
10 Dalmarnock Scotland 116.34% 116,760

All the stations in the top 10 have managed to at least double their passenger usage in 2015. (A further 4 stations can also boast this fact). Now we’re sorting by percentage increase the capital no longer dominates the top 10. London just about makes it into the top 30 where Canada Water sits at Rank No. 29 with an increase of 66.25%.

Whilst it may appear encouraging that some stations have managed to quadruple their footfall a relative pinch of salt should be taken when digesting these values.

Image By Jaggery

Energlyn & Churchill Park – Photo by Jaggery; CC-BY-SA-2.0

Energlyn & Churchill Park for example was not opened until part way through the financial year and therefore did not generate a true figure of it’s first years usage.

The stations with exceptionally poor usage that we saw earlier do not have to do much to skew the rankings. In this manner of data collection Tees-Side Airport, Britain’s 3rd least used station, can also boast that it is the 2nd most improved despite only gaining 24 more passengers. It may be asked why a station with only 6 yearly journeys suddenly gains a 300% increase in passengers, but this is likely due to it’s former status as least used station. Ironically this unusual accolade has attracted enthusiast attention which in turn has stripped it of it’s least used title.

It’s not until we get to Pevensey Bay that we see true increase which is accredited to local tourism. Manea, Blaydon and Dalmarnock are enjoying rising demand due to facility renovations and timetable adjustments. As we stated early Prittlewell and Newark appear in this list because of the change in the way data is collected for this study. Only New Lane in Lancashire has an unexplained doubling of journeys.

Percentage Decrease

Station Region Percentage
1 Abererch Wales -76.38% -1,054
2 Islip South East -74.62% -20,160
3 Southend Victoria East -63.54% -2,368,103
4 Bicester Town South East -57.46% -119,460
5 Sugar Loaf Wales -54.17% -130
6 Kinbrace Scotland -51.65% -564
7 Stanlow & Thornton North West -49.68% -156
8 Clifton North West -48.99% -146
9 Eccles Road East -48.35% -1028
10 Nethertown North West -48.28% -560

At the other end of the table we again see a number of low use stations dominate the rankings. Sugar Loaf, a station that from time to time frequents the least used station list, is a good example of how a station can halve it’s footfall without dropping that many passengers in the grand scheme of things.

Image By mattbuck

Abererch – Photo by mattbuck; CC-BY-SA

Abererch, Islip and Bicester were all temporarily closed in 2015 causing their numbers to understandably drop and the data redistribution at Southend Victoria we have already mentioned.

Kinbrace is flagged as having an unusual drop in passenger footfall despite steadily increasing usage for the last 10 years. A similar drop did however occur in 2010 and it recovered the following year.

It’s also worth pointing out that, with the exception of Southend Victoria, all the stations with the largest decrease of actual passengers have now vanished from this list. Despite the upgrade work at London Bridge displacing nearly 7 million passengers, it still only represents a 12.3% drop (Rank No. 110) in usage for the London terminus. This highlights the importance of examining both increases/decreases in terms of raw passenger numbers and as relative percentages.

Other Statistics

Total Passengers Carried In UK 14/15**** 1,392,535,310
Total Extra Passengers Carried
Compared To 13/14****
Total Extra Passengers
As Percentage Increase****
Station With Lowest Raw Change Bearley
(2 extra journeys)
Station With Most Estimated Interchanges Clapham Junction
Most Popular Season Ticket Destination London Waterloo
Least Popular Season Ticket Destination(s)***** Combe, Buckenham
(1 each)

****References Entries Into The System Only.
*****A further 127 station have No Season Ticket usage at all. Note: That is Combe, Oxfordshire not Coombe, Cornwall. 

To Read the full ORR stats report click here.

References: Estimates Of Station Usage 2014/15
Photo Credits: Mattbuck, Jaggery, Sunil060902, Ewan Munro, Diliff, Mark Hurn. Cover Image by Diliff

– Andy Carter

CAS Weekly 12/07/15

Class 43

Image By Bachmann


UK Rail

World Rail

From The CAS Team

Compiled by Edward Kendal and Andy Carter

CAS Weekly 22/06/15

Image by TfL


UK Rail

World Rail

From The CAS Team

Compiled by Edward Kendall & Andy Carter
Cover Image from TfL

CycleLine: Another Mad Idea

Yesterday, The Guardian published this article about the Gensler led design to turn London’s abandoned tube tunnels into underground cycle lanes.

As you can see, this didn’t really strike a chord with me. So as a response – here’s why:

Proposed Route Image from Gensler


As I discovered when I visited Aldwych Station a year ago, The former Piccadilly line between Holborn and The Strand originally closed as it was deemed uneconomically viable to refurbish the lifts (to the tune of £3m in 1994 money) to cater for the low patronage of 450 passengers per day. Presumably this stance would have to be reversed if the Cycle UnderLine were to provide access to the street at Aldwych, with additional lifts being required at Holborn. Even though I’m sure it would be hoped that more than 450 people per day use the stretch as a cycle lane, this still doesn’t warrant such a big expenditure just to remove cyclists from 0.3 miles of Kingway (the road above). As the whole point of cycling in London is to beat the traffic, and considering that you can walk from Holborn to Aldwych in 6 minutes, I’m not convinced this would save anyone any time. If anything it would make your journey longer.

This video really annoys me – Firstly because an example taxi journey of Green Park – Aldwych is somehow being compared with a cycle journey between the Isle of Dogs – Greenwich. The later of which is 1.2 miles shorter. Secondly – YOU’RE NOT SUPPOSED TO CYCLE IN THE GREENWICH FOOT TUNNEL!

The stretch of tunnel from Green Park to somewhere underneath Strand, East of Charing Cross, was part of The Jubilee Line up until 1999 when the line was extended towards Stratford. Again, it was considered a waste of money to keep this short branch open when Charing Cross was already being adequately served by the Bakerloo Line in a similar direction. Again I’m not sure that a cycle-bypass is really needed here, as you could easily use The Mall and Green Park to safely avoid the bulk of the area’s traffic. Further more, I’m not convinced using the entire proposed tunnel as a continuous route (Holborn – Green Park) would be an effective use of time. If you’re a serious cyclist, you’d just stay at street level on Shaftesbury Ave, and if you’re a novice – well you’d just take the Piccadilly Line and be there quicker.

Capacity & Cost

OK, so this design is at least trying to think of ways to reuse our redundant underground spaces practically, it just isn’t a very well thought out idea. There’s nothing wrong with the concept of underground cycle lanes, in fact as blue-sky thoughts go it’s not half bad. The problem is it’s being applied to a mismatch of routes and tunnels that weren’t even very useful as railways. For this scheme to work you’d have to construct a completely new route, east-west or north-south (A Cycle Crossrail if you will) to really provide congestion relief and a safer, quicker passage for cyclists. With London’s subterranean space now at such a premium, to make any new tunnelling cost effective it really needs to be allocated to high-capacity railway – most likely to a National Rail standard. Look at the proposed Crossrail 2 route. This was originally to be a Tube line from Epping – Wimbledon, but to make the most of any proposed new tunnelling it will now be linked to Suburban National Rail Lines to maximise every last drop of capacity. With all the best will in the world a brand new cycle-only tunnel would not be used as much as a railway or tube line, let alone one that doesn’t connect anywhere useful like Gensler’s.

The question also has to be raised, how would the conversion to cycle lane, the additional lifts and tunnelling be paid for? And how are costs recouped once constructed? You can’t charge cyclists for it’s use. They’d just stay on the streets above if you did. You’d have to look at some kind of commercial sponsorship or combined commercial use as the video suggests. Are shops with cycle-only footfall viable? I don’t know. Maybe in a utopian society, but in London probably not. So then you’d have to open access to pedestrians… and the whole scheme is closer and closer to circling the drain.


The idea of recycling space is still nonetheless a good one, so how can we use these redundant spaces more practically? Excellent question.

Seeing as both sets of tunnels are still electrified and maintained by London Underground it seems fairly sensible to keep them as railways and try to improve their fortunes. From the early 20th century it was suggested that the Aldwych branch should be extended southwards to Waterloo and beyond. I’ve suggested this myself before as it would alleviate congestion on the Northern Line, and provide a new north-south tube tunnel – of which there aren’t enough.

Image by London Reconnections

As for the Charing Cross tunnels, these have long been mooted as a potential DLR extension from Bank to free up capacity on the Central Line (known as the Horizon study).

Both lovely ideas, but again not without their downfalls: To extend the Piccadilly Line southwards would require an expensive rebuild of Holborn. As London Reconnections point out extending the DLR west would create all sorts of capacity problems at Bank not to mention overuse on the rest of the Dockland’s Network as well. Nevertheless, although more expensive, both ideas above would provide far more lasting capacity per £ over Gensler’s UnderLine.

New York Transit Museum Station. Image by Marcin Wichary

I however think there’s a better way to recycle the tunnels. Make them part of the London Transport Museum. This was recently done at New York’s equivalent where the platform levels are able to showcase rolling stock and past station architecture. You could use the remaining tunnels for exhibits, cafe/retail spaces or even heritage runs of old stock!